2017 Reports

Downloads & Resources

Soldering of WLCSPs to Temperature Sensitive Flexible Substrates with Area Laser Selective Reflow
Author: Peter McClure
Abstract: A variety of substrate materials are of interest to the flexible electronics industry. Currently the workhorse substrate is polyimide (PI) which can withstand the thermal requirements of traditional convection oven solder reflow, so no special processing techniques are required. But other substrates of interest are not thermally robust enough to endure traditional oven reflow. Special processing techniques (low melt solders, conductive adhesives, alternative heating, etc.) are required. Two such temperature sensitive substrates are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). In the case of TPU, oven soldering with SAC alloys is impossible because TPU will degrade during the process. In this study, a preliminary exploration of the possible use of area Laser Selective Reflow (aLSR) to join wafer level chip scale packages (WLCSPs) to PI, PET, and TPU substrates with SAC or BiSnAg solders was conducted. With aLSR preferential heating of solder can be achieved with short (<5sec) reflow time; significantly reducing the thermal load on substrates. This work is focused on determining if WLCSPs can be attached, without damaging the substrates, with aLSR. Different traces metallizations under aLSR were also examined; solid copper, silver ink, NovaCentrix ink, and Tatsuta ink.

Solder Void Formation in LGA and QFN Assemblies
Author: Michael Meilunas
Abstract: LGA and QFN solder joint quality was evaluated for various convection oven reflow processes in order to determine which parameters, if any, affect the level of solder joint void formation. Parameters investigated included peak reflow temperature and reflow atmosphere. The experiment was performed with a standard no-clean solder paste and a paste marketed as a “low void” formulation. Assembled samples were inspected using x-ray imaging to determine void size and quantity for each process, component and paste combination.

Area Laser Selective Reflow – Basic Process and Interconnect Quality
Author: Luke Wentlent
Abstract: Ever greater performance demands on electronic applications continue to drive increased miniaturization, higher package density and novel materials that can exceed the limits of existing assembly manufacturing processes. Such new technologies are demanding a greater control over the solder reflow process while still maintaining a high production throughput. In order to meet these challenges, an area Laser Selective Reflow (aLSR) instrument was developed by Crucial Machines, the capabilities of which were studied at the UIC-Conklin process laboratory. This report describes the observations and insights obtained from detailed evaluation of the laser reflow process. The solder reflow behavior as well as solder interconnect quality were assessed. Subsequent consortium reports will focus on various process parameters that influence the laser assembly process.

Large Body BGA with Thermal Lid: Assembly and Reliability Analysis
Author: Michael Meilunas
Abstract: Six large (55x55mm) BGA package designs were evaluated for assembly issues and thermal cycle reliability performance.  The BGA designs included three silicon die configurations with multiple thermal lid attachment configurations in addition to non-lidded samples.  Dynamic warpage was characterized using Shadow Moiré interferometry and the shape profiles were used to analyze assembly yield defects.  Samples were subjected to -40 to 125C thermal cycling in order to stress the assemblies and drive solder fatigue failures for comparative reliability analysis.

The experiment indicates that the die and lid configurations play a significant role at both the assembly and reliability level.

Pad Cratering Analysis using Cyclic 4-Point Bend Testing
Author: Michael Meilunas
Abstract: A cyclic 4-point bend test method was utilized as a means for investigating printed circuit board pad cratering behavior for five different laminate materials:  Nelco 4000, Nelco 4800, ZetaCap, Meteorwave 1000 and I-Speed.

Using Electrical Capacitance and Mechanically Representative Hardware to Evaluate the Thermal Mechanical Stability of Thermal Interface Materials
Authors: Michael A. Gaynes, Lauren Boston and Andrew Yu
Abstract: Experimental study of material performance is a necessary complement to virtual qualification efforts that use modeling and simulation to streamline development of new electronic assemblies. The durability of thermal interface materials in large complex printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies is difficult to model and therefore, experimental study and verification is needed. The thermal mechanical stability of dielectric thermal interface materials is monitored using electrical capacitance, the inverse of which has the same geometric dependence on bond line and area as thermal resistance. Electrical capacitance is fast, easy and accurate to measure and can be used with mechanically representative hardware very early in the development cycle. Four thermal interface materials (TIMs) classified as pre-cured thermal putties are evaluated on hardware that is easily prototyped and which is mechanically representative of large complex PCBs. Electrical capacitance of the TIMs was measured in situ during thermal cycle testing and could distinguish stability as well as degradation. Analysis of the TIMs after the test confirmed structural damage in the form of cracks, fissures and material movement. Electrical capacitance has broad application in evaluating the stability of dielectric TIMs in application specific designs very early in development by using easily procured mechanically representative hardware.

Reliability Testing and Performance Review of Thermal Interface Materials
Authors: Divya Choudhary and Michael Gaynes
Abstract: With ever increasing power density in the electronic packages, thermal management has become critical to ensure device operation within specification. Efforts are made to transfer the heat efficiently between the heat source and the heat sink by reducing the thermal resistance. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) improve the efficiency of heat transfer by filling the asperities/air gaps between these two non-ideal mating surfaces.

In this study, two silicone and one non-silicone thermal interface putty materials are evaluated. Characterization included measurement of unit area thermal resistance, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant, the latter of which is used in conjunction with electrical capacitance to calculate bond line thickness. The thermal interface materials were used between a thermal test vehicle and an aluminum heat sink. The target bond line was 0.5 mm and was achieved by pressing the heat sink down to 0.5 mm shims inserted at the corners between the heat sink and thermal test vehicle. Thermal resistance was measured at time-zero and at various points during thermal cycling between -40°C and 125°C: 250, 500, 750 and 1000 cycles. Increases in thermal resistance did occur. After thermal cycling the thermal test vehicle and heat sink were separated to observe the integrity of the thermal interface material. There was evidence of material degradation in the form of cracks and fissures.

Accelerated thermal cycle testing was found to be very useful in assessing the impact from differential thermal expansion in electronic assemblies.